영·한 번역 1급 2교시-사회과학
[제한시간 70분, 50점]
※ 다음 3문제 중 2문제를 선택하여 한국어로 번역하시오.
The large achievement gap between students of different backgrounds has persisted for four decades despite a significant federal investment in educating disadvantaged students during that time. Many disadvantaged children start school with fewer skills than their more advantaged peers. Research shows that early intervention helps children succeed in school and is particularly effective for the most disadvantaged students. It is less clear whether current levels of coordination among the myriad federal and state programs efficiently produce desired results for particular subgroups of children. For example, systematic information is not available on the total number of preschool children receiving subsidies through various federal programs and/or participating in state-funded preschool. This prevents a comprehensive assessment of how fully the combination of federal and state programs addresses preschoolers' needs. Recent legislative initiatives, such as the No Child Left Behind Act with its emphasis on accountability, may help change this trend and could be aided by retargeting of federal investments. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act was passed in 1965 to provide assistance to states in educating disadvantaged students through Title I, the largest federal program for elementary and secondary education. However, since about 90 percent of school districts receive these Title I funds to improve the education of disadvantaged students, including a growing number with limited English proficiency, an opportunity exists to improve targeting of funds to school districts having the greatest number and percentage of disadvantaged children.
The research with the Druze, along with the other research in non-Western cultures, indicates that concepts of rights, welfare, and justice are found across cultures. In the context of these similarities among cultures, however, there are also differences. In addition to differences in assumptions about reality, there are differences in the degree of hierarchically based distinctions in relationships between males and females and those of different social castes and classes. Many analyses of culture have focused on differences between cultures on these dimensions, interpreting them in accord with the proposition that cultures form integrated patterns represented either by an individualistic or collectivistic orientation. The hierarchical distinctions in gender or castes are said to be connected with the role designations of persons, through which persons are submerged in the group. It is not at all clear, however, that the presumption of coherent, integrated cultural patterns and associated consistencies in individuals' judgments and actions are in line with other formulations central to the propositions of those emphasizing culture often have voiced that there be acceptance of a variety of moral perspectives. Shweder and Haidt (1993) asserted that Gillligan "won the argument for pluralism"by augmenting the traditional views on justice with the care orientation. They also argue that Gilligan's proposition does not go far enough in the quest for pluralism because it does not account for further variations among cultures.
Secretary Duncan urged the nation's governors and state education leaders to continue the movement toward adopting internationally benchmarked standards for public K-12 education during his keynote address at the 2009 Governors Education Symposium in Cary, NC. He also applauded the 46 states and three territories that agreed this month to develop common standards as a means to prepare American students to compete and succeed in the global market place. "Perhaps for the first time, we have enough money to really make a difference. We have proven strategies for success in schools all across America. This is where reform will play out. It will filter up from classrooms and schools, districts and localities, but then it will arrive on your desks," Duncan told the governors. "And when it does, I urge you to remember that the truest measure of a society's worth is whether it offers all of our children the opportunity to go where they want to go, do what they want to do, and fulfill their dreams. This is the promise of education. This is my promise. This is your promise. This is the American promise." Currently, each state sets its own academic standards, and many of those standards fail to prepare children for college or careers. The National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers have committed to leading an effort to create common standards in English language arts and mathematics for grades K-12. These standards will be research- and evidence-based, internationally benchmarked, aligned with college and work expectations, and include rigorous content and skills.