영·한 번역 2급 2교시-인문과학
[제한시간 70분, 50점]
※ 다음 3문제 중 2문제를 선택하여 한국어로 번역하시오.
History never repeats itself exactly, and yet it is strange how near it comes to it sometimes. This incident of the throwing overboard of the tea at Boston in 1773 has become very famous. It is called the "Boston tea-party." When Bapu [Gandhi] started his salt campaign and the great march to Dandi, and the salt raids, many people in America thought of their "Boston tea-party" and compared the new "salt-party" to it. But of course there was a great deal of difference between the two. In 1775, war began between England and her American colonies. What were the colonies fighting for? Not independence, not to cut away from England. Even when fighting had begun and blood had been shed on both sides, the leaders of the colonists continued to address George III of England as their "Most Gracious Sovereign"and to consider themselves as his faithful subjects. So the colonies did not begin fighting for the sake of independence. Their grievances were taxation and restrictions on trade. They denied the right of the British Parliament to tax them against their will. "No taxation without representation" was their famous cry, and they were not represented in the British Parliament. The colonists had no army, but they had a vast country to retire and fall back upon whenever necessary. They built up an army, and Washington ultimately became their Commander-in-Chief.
Ireland for many centuries was less of a destination than a memory. Indeed, it was said that the Irish boomerang differed from its Australian counterpart in one important respect. When you threw it, it never came back - it only sang about coming back. Ireland remained a country of marked net outward migration for most of the twentieth century and, notwithstanding independence in 1922, the country continued to lose large numbers of young people to foreign labour markets. The situation was so critical in the 1950s that a popular book of the period had as its title, The Vanishing Irish. Though the situation improved somewhat with economic reforms and a move away from protectionist policies in the 1960s, Ireland emerged from the severe economic slump of the late 1970s and 1980s as the country with the highest net emigration rate in the European Union. By the 1990s, however, there had been a dramatic change in the country's migratory fortunes. Between 1996 and 2002 over a quarter of a million people came to live in Ireland and over half of these were foreign nationals. Work permits issued to EU nationals rose from 5,750 in 1999 to 40,504 in 2002 so that by the end of 2002 Ireland had become the country with the highest net immigration rate in the European Union. The new immigrants were largely made up of Irish nationals returning from abroad and economic migrants, with political refugees and asylum seekers accounting for 10 per cent of net migration to Ireland since 1995.
The concept of minor literature cuts across at least three different categories: the literature of numerically small nations and groups; the literature of oppressed minorities; and the literature of modernist avant-garde. In some cases, the first two categories coincide, but not in all. Small groups may be comprised of relatively autonomous, homogeneous populations, whose literary aspiration is simply to create great works that rival those of major literatures. In such cases, small groups have little in common with oppressed minorities. Conversely, oppressed minorities may be numerically small, but they may also form a statistical majority, for as Deleuze and Guattari argue, minorities are defined by their deviance from the norm rather than their actual numbers. Worldwide there may be relatively few white male adults, but nonwhites, women and children remain minorities nonetheless. Linguistically minorities may form a separate, small group, speaking their own ethnic tongue, but in other cases they may be differentiated from the larger population only through their particular use of a common language. The latter instances are what interest Deleuze and Guattari, and their concern with "small literatures" is restricted to those that involve a minor usage of language. It is through the concept of a minor usage of language that Deleuze and Guattari bring together the linguistic inventions of a minority inhabiting a majority's tongue and the experimentations with language of the modernist avant-garde.